Die Republik

Die Kultur Usbekistans

Culture of Usbekistan is one of the brightest and original cultures of East. It is inimitable national music, dances and painting, unique national kitchen and clothes. The Uzbek national music is characterized as variety of subjects and genres. The songs and tool plays according to their functions and forms of usage can be divided into two groups: performed in the certain time and under the certain circumstances and performed at any time. The songs connected with customs and traditions, labor processes, various ceremonies, dramatized entertainment representations and games belong to the first group.

The Uzbek people is well-known for its songs. Koshuk - household song with a small diapason melody, covering one or two rows of the poetic text. The dancing character of a melody of this genre provides their performance in support of comic dances. "Lapar" is a dialogue-song. In some areas the term - lapar is applied to wedding songs "Ulan" (which is performed as a dialogue of man and women). Genre "yalla" includes two kinds of songs: a melody of a narrow range, and solo simultaneously with dance. National and professional poems of the poets of East are used as the texts for the songs. The special place in the Uzbek musical heritage occupy "dastans" (epic legends with lyric-heroic content). Also "Makoms"- are the basic classical fund of professional music of oral tradition.

The dances of Uzbeks distinguish softness, smoothness and expressiveness of movements, easy sliding step, and original movements on a place and on a circle.

The development of national painting began many centuries ago. At 16-17 centuries art of the manuscript and binding in Bukhara and some other urban centers has achieved significant success. The decorating of manuscript included refined calligraphy, performance by water paints and thin ornaments on fields. In Samarkand and especially in Bukhara the Central Asian School of a miniature has achieved a great success and were developed many different style directions. One of them, for example is connected with traditions of Behzod, which characterized with its gentle style of writing the letter and architectural elements.

Culture of Usbekistan:
Applied Arts
Handicraft developed in Usbekistan from century to century, leaving unique products of the unknown foremen with rich arts, imaginations and perfection in Uzbek heritage. Due to the changes of social and economic conditions, handicraft gradually became the second after industrial productions on an extent of 20th century.

Ceramic. Pottery was one of the most developed manufactures of the Central Asia for several years. Spray and dry ceramics of the leading centers had local peculiarities that have been reflected in the original forms of final products. Number of local pottery centers are preserved to present days, such as Rishton, Ghijduvon, Khiva, Samarkand, Gurumsaray, Shakhrisabz, Urgut, Khorezm and Tashkent.

Engraving. Modern foremen, who work with a brass and copper, manufacture high quality products of engraving. A subtlety and wealth of patterns are inherent in the ware by the Bukhara foremen. Alongside the use of traditional forms of products, now foremen search for new forms and styles in the field.

Gold embroidery. Traditional center of this kind of crafts is in Bukhara. Today embroidery art is popular among the younger generation, as well. The foremen produce goods in the best traditions of the Bukhara gold embroidery.

Embroidery. Traditional centers of manufacturing of suzana are: Nurata, Bukhara, Samarkand, Shakhrisabz, Tashkent and Fergana. Many young artists have become interested in these kind of art. This is, not casual - as if creative energy in the people has woken up, by feeling an opportunity of practical realization and material effect, which in its turn led the flourishing of many kinds of traditional arts.

Carpeting. Now manufacturing of carpets in Usbekistan develops in 3 directions: homemade, state and private companies. Carpet masters produce all kinds of carpets in these provinces. Old classical Uzbek and Turkmen carpets are used as main samples in carpet making. Main tasks of carpet-makers include the restoration of ancient drawings, creation of new good quality products, and above all, - restoration of technology of traditional dying of natural fabric. Long use of aniline dyes had its negative effect upon aesthetic qualities of the homemade carpets with further turning them to an ordinary household item.

Silk weaving. The revival of the silk weaving is related to the activity of "Yodgorlic" company in Margilan. Today production of national fabrics such as atlas, khon-atlas, shkhi-bekasam and bakhmal is restored. Ancient traditional patterns are revived, and at the same time, special attention is paid towards restoration of natural dyes.

Jewelry. The art of jewelry making in Usbekistan has its long traditions. From the century to century zargar masters have created unique jewelry items. In the second half of the 20th century jewelry became an industrial product, which resulted to some unification of jewelry items, a gradule simplification and distortion of traditional forms of ornaments, and the refusal of some kinds of technology.